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Ruby Programming
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Integer and Floating Point Numbers

Ruby integers are objects of class Fixnum or Bignum. Fixnum objects hold integers that fit within the native machine word minus 1 bit. Whenever a Fixnum exceeds this range, it is automatically converted to a Bignum object, whose range is effectively limited only by available memory. If an operation with a Bignum result has a final value that will fit in a Fixnum, the result will be returned as a Fixnum.

Integers are written using an optional leading sign, an optional base indicator (0 for octal, 0x for hex, or 0b for binary), followed by a string of digits in the appropriate base. Underscore characters are ignored in the digit string.

You can get the integer value corresponding to an ASCII character by preceding that character with a question mark. Control and meta combinations of characters can also be generated using ?\C-x, ?\M-x, and ?\M-\C-x. The control version of ch is ch&0x9f, and the meta version is ch | 0x80. You can get the integer value of a backslash character using the sequence ?\\.

123456                    # Fixnum
123_456                   # Fixnum (underscore ignored)
-543                      # Negative Fixnum
123_456_789_123_345_789   # Bignum
0xaabb                    # Hexadecimal
0377                      # Octal
-0b1010                   # Binary (negated)
0b001_001                 # Binary
?a                        # character code
?A                        # upper case
?\C-a                     # control a = A - 0x40
?\C-A                     # case ignored for control chars
?\M-a                     # meta sets bit 7
?\M-\C-a                  # meta and control a

A numeric literal with a decimal point and/or an exponent is turned into a Float object, corresponding to the native architecture's double data type. You must follow the decimal point with a digit, as 1.e3 tries to invoke the method e3 in class Fixnum.

12.34 12.34
-.1234e2 -12.34
1234e-2 12.34

Ruby Programming
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