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Ruby Programming
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Quoting

When dealing with URLs and HTML code, you must be careful to quote certain characters. For instance, a slash character (``/'') has special meaning in a URL, so it must be ``escaped'' if it's not part of the path name. That is, any ``/'' in the query portion of the URL will be translated to the string ``%2F'' and must be translated back to a ``/'' for you to use it. Space and ampersand are also special characters. To handle this, CGI provides the routines CGI.escape and CGI.unescape:

require 'cgi'
puts CGI.escape( "Nicholas Payton/Trumpet & Flugel Horn" )
produces:
Nicholas+Payton%2FTrumpet+%26+Flugel+Horn

Similarly, you may want to escape HTML special characters:

require 'cgi'
puts CGI.escapeHTML( '<a href="/mp3">Click Here</a>' )
produces:
&lt;a href=&quot;/mp3&quot;&gt;Click Here&lt;/a&gt;

To get really fancy, you can decide to escape only certain elements within a string:

require 'cgi'
puts CGI.escapeElement('<hr><a href="/mp3">Click Here</a><br>','A')
produces:
<hr>&lt;a href=&quot;/mp3&quot;&gt;Click Here&lt;/a&gt;<br>

Here only the ``A'' tag is escaped; other tags are left alone. Each of these methods has an ``un-'' version to restore the original string.
Ruby Programming
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