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The math Module

The math module is made available to your programs with:

import math

The math module contains the following trigonometric functions

math.acos ( x ) → number

arc cosine of x .

math.asin ( x ) → number

arc sine of x .

math.atan ( x ) → number

arc tangent of x .

math.atan2 ( y , x ) → number

arc tangent of y / x .

math.cos ( x ) → number

cosine of x .

math.cosh ( x ) → number

hyperbolic cosine of x .

math.exp ( x ) → number

e** x , inverse of log( x ).

math.hypot ( x , y ) → number

Euclidean distance, sqrt( x * x + y * y ), length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with height of y and length of x .

math.log ( x ) → number

natural logarithm (base e) of x , inverse of exp( x ).

math.log10 ( x ) → number

natural logarithm (base 10) of x , inverse of 10** x .

math.pow ( x , y ) → number

x ** y .

math.sin ( x ) → number

sine of x .

math.sinh ( x ) → number

hyperbolic sine of x .

math.sqrt ( x ) → number

square root of x . This version returns an error if you ask for sqrt(-1), even though Python understands complex and imaginary numbers. A second module, cmath, includes a version of sqrt( x ) which correctly creates imaginary numbers.

math.tan ( x ) → number

tangent of x .

math.tanh ( x ) → number

hyperbolic tangent of x .

Additionally, the following constants are also provided.

math.pi

the value of pi, 3.1415926535897931

math.e

the value of e, 2.7182818284590451, used for the exp( x ) and log( x ) functions.

The math module contains the following other functions for dealing with floating point numbers.

math.ceil ( x ) → number

next larger whole number. math.ceil(5.1) == 6, math.ceil(-5.1) == -5.0.

math.fabs ( x ) → number

absolute value of the real x .

math.floor ( x ) → number

next smaller whole number. math.floor(5.9) == 5, math.floor(-5.9) == -6.0.

math.fmod ( x , y ) → number

floating point remainder after division of x / y . This depends on the platform C library and may return a different result than the Python x % y.

math.modf ( x ) → ( number, number )

creates a tuple with the fractional and integer parts of x . Both results carry the sign of x so that x can be reconstructed by adding them.

math.frexp ( x ) → ( number, number )

this function unwinds the usual base-2 floating point representation. A floating point number is m *2** e , where m is always a fraction between 1/2 and 1, and e is an integer power of 2. This function returns a tuple with m and e . The inverse is ldexp(m,e).

math.ldexp ( m , e ) → number

m *2** e , the inverse of frexp(x).


 
 
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