12.5 For More Information
Apart from the product-specific help resources, there is a broad range of
information available for Linux topics.
12.5.1 Online Resources for openSUSE
The openSUSE community are helpful people. If you have a specific
question you can write to several mailing lists, communicate with
Internet Relay Chat (IRC), or browse through Web Forums. Find more
information at http://en.opensuse.org/Communicate.
12.5.2 The Linux Documentation Project
The Linux Documentation Project (TLDP) is run by a team of volunteers
who write Linux-related documentation (see
http://www.tldp.org). The set of documents contains
tutorials for beginners, but is mainly focused on experienced users and
professional system administrators. TLDP publishes HOWTOs, FAQs, and
guides (handbooks) under a free license.
HOWTOs are usually a short, informal, step-by-step guides to
accomplishing specific tasks. HOWTOs can be found in the package
howto and are installed under
Frequently Asked Questions
FAQs (frequently asked questions) are a series of questions and
answers. They originate from Usenet newsgroups where the purpose was to
reduce continuous reposting of the same basic questions.
Manuals and guides for various topics or programs can be found at
http://www.tldp.org/guides.html. They range from
Bash Guide for Beginners
. Generally, guides are more detailed and exhaustive than a HOWTO or
FAQ. They are usually written by experts for experts. Some of these
books are old but still valid and ship with openSUSE. Search and
install these books and guides with YaST.
Created in 1979 before the rise of the Internet, Usenet is one of the
oldest computer networks and still in active use. The format and
transmission of Usenet articles is very similar to e-mail, but is
developed for a many-to-many communication.
Usenet is organized into seven topical categories:
misc.* for miscellaneous
topics, news.* for
rec.* for recreation and
entertainment, sci.* for
soc.* for social discussions,
and talk.* for various
controversial topics. The top levels are split in subgroups. For
is a newsgroup for Linux-specific hardware issues.
Before you can post an article, have your client connect to a news
server and subscribe to a specific newsgroup. News clients include Knode
or Evolution. Each news server communicates to other news servers and
exchanges articles with them. Not all newsgroups may be available on
your news server.
Interesting newsgroups for Linux users are
If you cannot find a specific newsgroup, go to
the general Usenet rules available online at
12.5.4 Wikipedia: The Free Online Encyclopedia
a multilingual encyclopedia designed to be read and
edited by anyone (see http://en.wikipedia.org).
The content of Wikipedia is created by its users and is published under
a free license (GFDL). Any visitor can edit articles.
12.5.5 Standards and Specifications
There are various sources that provide information about standards or
The Linux Foundation is an independent nonprofit organization that
promotes the distribution of free software and open source software.
The organization endeavors to achieve this by defining
distribution-independent standards. The maintenance of several
standards, such as the important LSB (Linux Standard Base), is
supervised by this organization.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is one of the best-known
standards organizations. It was founded in October 1994 by Tim
Berners-Lee and concentrates on standardizing Web technologies. W3C
promotes the dissemination of open, license-free, and
manufacturer-independent specifications, such as HTML, XHTML, and
XML. These Web standards are developed in a four-stage process in
working groups and are presented to the public
as W3C recommendations (REC).
OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information
Standards) is an international consortium specializing in the
development of standards for Web security, e-business, business
transactions, logistics, and interoperability between various
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an internationally
active cooperative of researchers, network designers, suppliers, and
users. It concentrates on the development of Internet architecture
and the smooth operation of the Internet by means of protocols.
Every IETF standard is published as an RFC (Request for Comments) and
is available free-of-charge. There are six types of RFC: proposed
standards, draft standards, Internet standards, experimental
protocols, information documents, and historic standards. Only the
first three (proposed, draft, and full) are IETF standards in the
narrower sense (see
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an
organization that draws up standards in the areas of information
technology, telecommunication, medicine and health care, transport,
and others. IEEE standards are subject to a fee.
The ISO Committee (International Organization for Standards) is the
world's largest developer of standards and maintains a network of
national standardization institutes in over 140 countries. ISO
standards are subject to a fee.
The Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) is a registered technical
and scientific association. It was founded in 1917. According to DIN,
the organization is
the institution responsible for standards
in Germany and represents German interests in worldwide and European
The association brings together manufacturers, consumers, trade
professionals, service companies, scientists and others who have an
interest in the establishment of standards. The standards are subject
to a fee and can be ordered using the DIN home page.