This section covers the required and optional zone components that can be configured.
Additional information is provided in Zone Configuration Data.
Zone Name and Path
You must choose a name and a path for your zone.
The autoboot property setting determines whether the zone is automatically booted when the
global zone is booted. The zones service, svc:/system/zones:default must also be enabled.
Resource Pool Association
If you have configured resource pools on your system as described in
Chapter 13, Creating and Administering Resource Pools (Tasks), you can use the pool property to associate the zone with one
of the resource pools when you configure the zone.
If you do not have resource pools configured, you can still specify that
a subset of the system's processors be dedicated to a non-global zone while
it is running by using the dedicated-cpu resource. The system will dynamically create
a temporary pool for use while the zone is running. With specification through
zonecfg, pool settings propagate during migrations.
Note - A zone configuration using a persistent pool set through the pool property
is incompatible with a temporary pool configured through the dedicated-cpu resource. You can
set only one of these two properties.
The dedicated-cpu resource specifies that a subset of the system's processors should be
dedicated to a non-global zone while it is running. When the zone boots,
the system will dynamically create a temporary pool for use while the zone
With specification in zonecfg, pool settings propagate during migrations.
The dedicated-cpu resource sets limits for ncpus, and optionally, importance.
Specify the number of CPUs or specify a range, such as 2–4 CPUs. If you specify a range because you want dynamic resource pool behavior, also do the following:
If you are using a CPU range to achieve dynamic behavior, also set the importance property, The importance property, which is optional, defines the relative importance of the pool. This property is only needed when you specify a range for ncpus and are using dynamic resource pools managed by poold. If poold is not running, then importance is ignored. If poold is running and importance is not set, importance defaults to 1. For more information, see pool.importance Property Constraint.
Note - The capped-cpu resource and the dedicated-cpu resource are incompatible. The cpu-shares rctl and
the dedicated-cpu resource are incompatible.
The capped-cpu resource provides an absolute fine-grained limit on the amount of CPU
resources that can be consumed by a project or a zone. When used
in conjunction with processor sets, CPU caps limit CPU usage within a
set. The capped-cpu resource has a single ncpus property that is a positive
decimal with two digits to the right of the decimal. This property corresponds
to units of CPUs. The resource does not accept a range. The resource
does accept a decimal number. When specifying ncpus, a value of 1 means
100 percent of a CPU. A value of 1.25 means 125 percent, because
100 percent corresponds to one full CPU on the system.
Note - The capped-cpu resource and the dedicated-cpu resource are incompatible.
You can use the fair share scheduler (FSS) to control the allocation of available CPU resources
among zones, based on their importance. This importance is expressed by the number
of shares of CPU resources that you assign to each zone. Even if
you are not using FSS to manage CPU resource allocation between zones, you
can set the zone's scheduling-class to use FSS so that you can set
shares on projects within the zone.
When you explicitly set the cpu-shares property, the fair share scheduler (FSS) will
be used as the scheduling class for that zone. However, the preferred way
to use FSS in this case is to set FSS to be the
system default scheduling class with the dispadmin command. That way, all zones will
benefit from getting a fair share of the system CPU resources. If cpu-shares
is not set for a zone, the zone will use the system default
scheduling class. The following actions set the scheduling class for a zone:
You can use the scheduling-class property in zonecfg to set the scheduling class for the zone.
You can set the scheduling class for a zone through the resource pools facility. If the zone is associated with a pool that has its pool.scheduler property set to a valid scheduling class, then processes running in the zone run in that scheduling class by default. See Introduction to Resource Pools and How to Associate a Pool With a Scheduling Class.
If the cpu-shares rctl is set and FSS has not been set as the scheduling class for the zone through another action, zoneadmd sets the scheduling class to FSS when the zone boots.
If the scheduling class is not set through any other action, the zone inherits the system default scheduling class.
Note that you can use the priocntl described in the priocntl(1) man
page to move running processes into a different scheduling class without changing the default
scheduling class and rebooting.
Physical Memory Control and the capped-memory Resource
The capped-memory resource sets limits for physical, swap, and locked memory. Each limit
is optional, but at least one must be set.
Determine values for this resource if you plan to cap memory for the zone by using rcapd from the global zone. The physical property of the capped-memory resource is used by rcapd as the max-rss value for the zone.
The swap property of the capped-memory resource is the preferred way to set the zone.max-swap resource control.
The locked property of the capped-memory resource is the preferred way to set the zone.max-locked-memory resource control.
For more information, see Chapter 10, Physical Memory Control Using the Resource Capping Daemon (Overview), Chapter 11, Administering the Resource Capping Daemon (Tasks), and How to Configure the Zone.
Zone Network Interfaces
Zone network interfaces configured by the zonecfg command to provide network connectivity will
automatically be set up and placed in the zone when it is booted.
The Internet Protocol (IP) layer accepts and delivers packets for the network. This
layer includes IP routing, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), IP security architecture (IPsec),
and IP Filter.
There are two IP types available for non-global zones, shared-IP and exclusive-IP. The
shared-IP zone shares a network interface and the exclusive-IP zone must have a
dedicated network interface.
For information about IP features in each type, see Networking in Shared-IP Non-Global Zones and Networking in Exclusive-IP Non-Global Zones.
Shared-IP Non-Global Zones
The shared-IP zone is the default type. The zone must have one or
more dedicated IP addresses. A shared-IP zone shares the IP layer configuration and
state with the global zone. The zone should use the shared-IP instance if
both of the following are true:
The zone is to be connected to the same data-link, that is, be on the same IP subnet or subnets as the global zone
You do not want the other capabilities that the exclusive-IP zone provides.
Shared-IP zones are assigned one or more IP addresses using the zonecfg
command. The data-link names must also be configured in the global zone.
In the zonecfg net resource, the address and the physical properties must
be set. The defrouter property is optional.
These addresses are associated with logical network interfaces. The ifconfig command can
be used from the global zone to add or remove logical interfaces in
a running zone. For more information, see Shared-IP Network Interfaces.
Exclusive-IP Non-Global Zones
Full IP-level functionality is available in an exclusive-IP zone.
An exclusive-IP zone has its own IP-related state.
This includes the ability to use the following features in an exclusive-IP zone:
DHCPv4 and IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration
IP Filter, including network address translation (NAT) functionality
IP Network Multipathing (IPMP)
ndd for setting TCP/UDP/SCTP as well as IP/ARP-level knobs
IP security (IPsec) and IKE, which automates the provision of authenticated keying material for IPsec security association
An exclusive-IP zone is assigned its own set of data-links using the zonecfg
command. The zone is given a data-link name such as xge0, e1000g1, or
bge32001, using the physical property of the net resource. The address and the
defrouter properties of the net resource are not set.
Note that the assigned data-link enables the snoop command to be used.
The dladm command can be used with the show-linkprop subcommand to show
the assignment of data-links to running exclusive-IP zones. The dladm command can be
used with the set-linkprop subcommand to assign additional data-links to running zones.
See Administering Data-Links in Exclusive-IP Non-Global Zones for usage examples.
Inside a running exclusive-IP zone, the ifconfig command can be used to configure
IP, which includes the ability to add or remove logical interfaces. The IP
configuration in a zone can be set up in the same way
as for the global zone, by using the sysidtools described in sysidcfg(4).
Note - The IP configuration of an exclusive-IP zone can only be viewed from the
global zone by using the zlogin command. An example follows.
global# zlogin zone1 ifconfig -a
Security Differences Between Shared-IP and Exclusive-IP Non-Global Zones
In a shared-IP zone, applications in the zone, including the superuser, cannot send
packets with source IP addresses other than the ones assigned to the zone
through the zonecfg utility. This type of zone does not have access to
send and receive arbitrary data-link (layer 2) packets.
For an exclusive-IP zone, zonecfg instead grants the entire specified data-link to the
zone. As a result, the superuser in an exclusive-IP zone can send spoofed
packets on those data-links, just as can be done in the global
Using Shared-IP and Exclusive-IP Non-Global Zones at the Same Time
The shared-IP zones always share the IP layer with the global zone, and
the exclusive-IP zones always have their own instance of the IP layer. Both
shared-IP zones and exclusive-IP zones can be used on the same machine.
File Systems Mounted in Zones
Generally, the file systems mounted in a zone include the following:
This can include, for example, the following file systems:
File systems specified in a zone's /etc/vfstab file
AutoFS and AutoFS-triggered mounts
Mounts explicitly performed by a zone administrator
Certain restrictions are placed on mounts performed from within the application environment. These
restrictions prevent the zone administrator from denying service to the rest of the
system, or otherwise negatively impacting other zones.
There are security restrictions associated with mounting certain file systems from within a
zone. Other file systems exhibit special behavior when mounted in a zone. See
File Systems and Non-Global Zones for more information.
Configured Devices in Zones
The zonecfg command uses a rule-matching system to specify which devices should appear
in a particular zone. Devices matching one of the rules are included in
the zone's /dev file system. For more information, see How to Configure the Zone.
Setting Zone-Wide Resource Controls
The global administrator can set privileged zone-wide resource controls for a zone. Zone-wide resource
controls limit the total resource usage of all process entities within a zone.
These limits are specified for both the global and non-global zones by using
the zonecfg command. See How to Configure the Zone.
The preferred, simpler method for setting a zone-wide resource control is to use
the property name instead of the rctl resource.
The zone.cpu-cap resource control sets an absolute limit on the amount of CPU
resources that can be consumed by a zone. A value of 100 means
100 percent of one CPU as the project.cpu-cap setting. A value of
125 is 125 percent, because 100 percent corresponds to one full CPU on
the system when using CPU caps.
Note - When setting the capped-cpu resource, you can use a decimal number for the
unit. The value correlates to the zone.capped-cpu resource control, but the setting
is scaled down by 100. A setting of 1 is equivalent to a
setting of 100 for the resource control.
The zone.cpu-shares resource control sets a limit on the number of fair share
scheduler (FSS) CPU shares for a zone. CPU shares are first allocated to
the zone, and then further subdivided among projects within the zone as specified
in the project.cpu-shares entries. For more information, see Using the Fair Share Scheduler on a Solaris System With Zones Installed. The global property name for
this control is cpu-shares.
The zone.max-locked-memory resource control limits the amount of locked physical memory available to
a zone The allocation of the locked memory resource across projects within the
zone can be controlled by using the project.max-locked-memory resource control. See Table 6-1 for more information.
The zone.max-lwps resource control enhances resource isolation by preventing too many LWPs in
one zone from affecting other zones. The allocation of the LWP resource across
projects within the zone can be controlled by using the project.max-lwps resource control. See
Table 6-1 for more information. The global property name for this control is max-lwps.
The zone.max-msg-ids, zone.max-sem-ids, zone.max-shm-ids, and zone.max-shm-memory resource controls are used to limit
System V resources used by all processes within a zone. The allocation of
System V resources across projects within the zone can be controlled by using
the project versions of these resource controls. The global property names for these
controls are max-msg-ids, max-sem-ids, max-shm-ids, and max-shm-memory.
The zone.max-swap resource control limits swap consumed by user process address space mappings
and tmpfs mounts within a zone. The output of prstat -Z displays a SWAP
column. The swap reported is the total swap consumed by the zone's processes
and tmpfs mounts. This value assists in monitoring the swap reserved by each
zone, which can be used to choose an appropriate zone.max-swap setting.
Table 17-1 Zone-Wide Resource Controls
Value Used For
Absolute limit on the amount of CPU resources
for this zone
Quantity (number of CPUs), expressed as a percentage
Note - When setting as
the capped-cpu resource, you can use a decimal number for the unit.
fair share scheduler (FSS) CPU shares for this zone
Total amount of
physical locked memory available to a zone.
If priv_proc_lock_memory is assigned to a
zone, consider setting this resource control as well, to prevent that zone from
locking all memory.
locked property of capped-memory
Maximum number of LWPs simultaneously available to
Maximum number of message queue IDs allowed for this zone
(message queue IDs)
Maximum number of semaphore IDs allowed for this zone
Maximum number of shared memory IDs allowed for this zone
Quantity (shared memory
Total amount of System V shared memory allowed for this zone
amount of swap that can be consumed by user process address space mappings
and tmpfs mounts for this zone.
swap property of capped-memory
These limits can be specified for running processes by using the prctl
command. An example is provided in How to Set FSS Shares in the Global Zone Using the prctl Command. Limits specified through the prctl command
are not persistent. The limits are only in effect until the system is
When a zone is booted, a default set of safe privileges is included
in the configuration. These privileges are considered safe because they prevent a privileged
process in the zone from affecting processes in other non-global zones on the
system or in the global zone. You can use the zonecfg command
to do the following:
Add to the default set of privileges, understanding that such changes might allow processes in one zone to affect processes in other zones by being able to control a global resource.
Remove from the default set of privileges, understanding that such changes might prevent some processes from operating correctly if they require those privileges to run.
Note - There are a few privileges that cannot be removed from the zone's default
privilege set, and there are also a few privileges that cannot be added
to the set at this time.
For more information, see Privileges in a Non-Global Zone, How to Configure the Zone, and privileges(5).
Including a Comment for a Zone
You can add a comment for a zone by using the attr
resource type. For more information, see How to Configure the Zone.