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System Administration Guide: Virtualization Using the Solaris Operating System
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Configuring Resource Controls and Attributes

The resource controls facility is configured through the project database. See Chapter 2, Projects and Tasks (Overview). Resource controls and other attributes are set in the final field of the project database entry. The values associated with each resource control are enclosed in parentheses, and appear as plain text separated by commas. The values in parentheses constitute an “action clause.” Each action clause is composed of a privilege level, a threshold value, and an action that is associated with the particular threshold. Each resource control can have multiple action clauses, which are also separated by commas. The following entry defines a per-task lightweight process limit and a per-process maximum CPU time limit on a project entity. The process.max-cpu-time would send a process a SIGTERM after the process ran for 1 hour, and a SIGKILL if the process continued to run for a total of 1 hour and 1 minute. See Table 6-3.

development:101:Developers:::task.max-lwps=(privileged,10,deny);
  process.max-cpu-time=(basic,3600,signal=TERM),(priv,3660,signal=KILL)
typed as one line

Note - On systems that have zones enabled, zone-wide resource controls are specified in the zone configuration using a slightly different format. See Zone Configuration Data for more information.


The rctladm command allows you to make runtime interrogations of and modifications to the resource controls facility, with global scope. The prctl command allows you to make runtime interrogations of and modifications to the resource controls facility, with local scope.

For more information, see Global and Local Actions on Resource Control Values, rctladm(1M) and prctl(1).


Note - On a system with zones installed, you cannot use rctladm in a non-global zone to modify settings. You can use rctladm in a non-global zone to view the global logging state of each resource control.


Available Resource Controls

A list of the standard resource controls that are available in this release is shown in the following table.

The table describes the resource that is constrained by each control. The table also identifies the default units that are used by the project database for that resource. The default units are of two types:

  • Quantities represent a limited amount.

  • Indexes represent a maximum valid identifier.

Thus, project.cpu-shares specifies the number of shares to which the project is entitled. process.max-file-descriptor specifies the highest file number that can be assigned to a process by the open(2) system call.

Table 6-1 Standard Project, Task, and Process Resource Controls

Control Name

Description

Default Unit

project.cpu-cap

Absolute limit on the amount of CPU resources that can be consumed by a project. A value of 100 means 100% of one CPU as the project.cpu-cap setting. A value of 125 is 125%, because 100% corresponds to one full CPU on the system when using CPU caps.

Quantity (number of CPUs)

project.cpu-shares

Number of CPU shares granted to this project for use with the fair share scheduler (see FSS(7)).

Quantity (shares)

project.max-crypto-memory

Total amount of kernel memory that can be used by libpkcs11 for hardware crypto acceleration. Allocations for kernel buffers and session-related structures are charged against this resource control.

Size (bytes)

project.max-locked-memory

Total amount of physical locked memory allowed.

If priv_proc_lock_memory is assigned to a user, consider setting this resource control as well to prevent that user from locking all memory.

Note that this resource control replaced project.max-device-locked-memory, which has been removed. This release control will be removed in a future release.

Size (bytes)

project.max-msg-ids

Maximum number of message queue IDs allowed for this project.

Quantity (message queue IDs)

project.max-port-ids

Maximum allowable number of event ports.

Quantity (number of event ports)

project.max-sem-ids

Maximum number of semaphore IDs allowed for this project.

Quantity (semaphore IDs)

project.max-shm-ids

Maximum number of shared memory IDs allowed for this project.

Quantity (shared memory IDs)

project.max-shm-memory

Total amount of System V shared memory allowed for this project.

Size (bytes)

project.max-lwps

Maximum number of LWPs simultaneously available to this project.

Quantity (LWPs)

project.max-tasks

Maximum number of tasks allowable in this project.

Quantity (number of tasks)

project.max-contracts

Maximum number of contracts allowed in this project.

Quantity (contracts)

task.max-cpu-time

Maximum CPU time that is available to this task's processes.

Time (seconds)

task.max-lwps

Maximum number of LWPs simultaneously available to this task's processes.

Quantity (LWPs)

process.max-cpu-time

Maximum CPU time that is available to this process.

Time (seconds)

process.max-file-descriptor

Maximum file descriptor index available to this process.

Index (maximum file descriptor)

process.max-file-size

Maximum file offset available for writing by this process.

Size (bytes)

process.max-core-size

Maximum size of a core file created by this process.

Size (bytes)

process.max-data-size

Maximum heap memory available to this process.

Size (bytes)

process.max-stack-size

Maximum stack memory segment available to this process.

Size (bytes)

process.max-address-space

Maximum amount of address space, as summed over segment sizes, that is available to this process.

Size (bytes)

process.max-port-events

Maximum allowable number of events per event port.

Quantity (number of events)

process.max-sem-nsems

Maximum number of semaphores allowed per semaphore set.

Quantity (semaphores per set)

process.max-sem-ops

Maximum number of semaphore operations allowed per semop call (value copied from the resource control at semget() time).

Quantity (number of operations)

process.max-msg-qbytes

Maximum number of bytes of messages on a message queue (value copied from the resource control at msgget() time).

Size (bytes)

process.max-msg-messages

Maximum number of messages on a message queue (value copied from the resource control at msgget() time).

Quantity (number of messages)

You can display the default values for resource controls on a system that does not have any resource controls set or changed. Such a system contains no non-default entries in /etc/system or the project database. To display values, use the prctl command.

Zone-Wide Resource Controls

Zone-wide resource controls limit the total resource usage of all process entities within a zone. Zone-wide resource controls can also be set using global property names as described in Setting Zone-Wide Resource Controls and How to Configure the Zone.

Table 6-2 Zones Resource Controls

Control Name

Description

Default Unit

zone.cpu-cap

Absolute limit on the amount of CPU resources that can be consumed by a non-global zone. A value of 100 means 100% of one CPU as the project.cpu-cap setting. A value of 125 is 125%, because 100% corresponds to one full CPU on the system when using CPU caps.

Quantity (number of CPUs)

zone.cpu-shares

Number of fair share scheduler (FSS) CPU shares for this zone

Quantity (shares)

zone.max-locked-memory

Total amount of physical locked memory available to a zone.

When priv_proc_lock_memory is assigned to a zone, consider setting this resource control as well to prevent that zone from locking all memory.

Size (bytes)

zone.max-lwps

Maximum number of LWPs simultaneously available to this zone

Quantity (LWPs)

zone.max-msg-ids

Maximum number of message queue IDs allowed for this zone

Quantity (message queue IDs)

zone.max-sem-ids

Maximum number of semaphore IDs allowed for this zone

Quantity (semaphore IDs)

zone.max-shm-ids

Maximum number of shared memory IDs allowed for this zone

Quantity (shared memory IDs)

zone.max-shm-memory

Total amount of System V shared memory allowed for this zone

Size (bytes)

zone.max-swap

Total amount of swap that can be consumed by user process address space mappings and tmpfs mounts for this zone.

Size (bytes)

For information on configuring zone-wide resource controls, see Resource Type Properties and How to Configure the Zone. To use zone-wide resource controls in lx branded zones, see How to Configure, Verify, and Commit the lx Branded Zone.

Note that it is possible to apply a zone-wide resource control to the global zone. See Using the Fair Share Scheduler on a Solaris System With Zones Installed for additional information.

Units Support

Global flags that identify resource control types are defined for all resource controls. The flags are used by the system to communicate basic type information to applications such as the prctl command. Applications use the information to determine the following:

  • The unit strings that are appropriate for each resource control

  • The correct scale to use when interpreting scaled values

The following global flags are available:

Global Flag

Resource Control Type String

Modifier

Scale

RCTL_GLOBAL_BYTES

bytes

B

1

KB

210

MB

220

GB

230

TB

240

PB

250

EB

260

RCTL_GLOBAL_SECONDS

seconds

s

1

Ks

103

Ms

106

Gs

109

Ts

1012

Ps

1015

Es

1018

RCTL_GLOBAL_COUNT

count

none

1

K

103

M

106

G

109

T

1012

P

1015

E

1018

Scaled values can be used with resource controls. The following example shows a scaled threshold value:

task.max-lwps=(priv,1K,deny)

Note - Unit modifiers are accepted by the prctl, projadd, and projmod commands. You cannot use unit modifiers in the project database itself.


Resource Control Values and Privilege Levels

A threshold value on a resource control constitutes an enforcement point where local actions can be triggered or global actions, such as logging, can occur.

Each threshold value on a resource control must be associated with a privilege level. The privilege level must be one of the following three types.

  • Basic, which can be modified by the owner of the calling process

  • Privileged, which can be modified only by privileged (superuser) callers

  • System, which is fixed for the duration of the operating system instance

A resource control is guaranteed to have one system value, which is defined by the system, or resource provider. The system value represents how much of the resource the current implementation of the operating system is capable of providing.

Any number of privileged values can be defined, and only one basic value is allowed. Operations that are performed without specifying a privilege value are assigned a basic privilege by default.

The privilege level for a resource control value is defined in the privilege field of the resource control block as RCTL_BASIC, RCTL_PRIVILEGED, or RCTL_SYSTEM. See setrctl(2) for more information. You can use the prctl command to modify values that are associated with basic and privileged levels.

Global and Local Actions on Resource Control Values

There are two categories of actions on resource control values: global and local.

Global Actions on Resource Control Values

Global actions apply to resource control values for every resource control on the system. You can use the rctladm command described in the rctladm(1M) man page to perform the following actions:

  • Display the global state of active system resource controls

  • Set global logging actions

You can disable or enable the global logging action on resource controls. You can set the syslog action to a specific degree by assigning a severity level, syslog=level. The possible settings for level are as follows:

  • debug

  • info

  • notice

  • warning

  • err

  • crit

  • alert

  • emerg

By default, there is no global logging of resource control violations. The level n/a indicates resource controls on which no global action can be configured.

Local Actions on Resource Control Values

Local actions are taken on a process that attempts to exceed the control value. For each threshold value that is placed on a resource control, you can associate one or more actions. There are three types of local actions: none, deny, and signal=. These three actions are used as follows:

none

No action is taken on resource requests for an amount that is greater than the threshold. This action is useful for monitoring resource usage without affecting the progress of applications. You can also enable a global message that displays when the resource control is exceeded, although the process exceeding the threshhold is not affected.

deny

You can deny resource requests for an amount that is greater than the threshold. For example, a task.max-lwps resource control with action deny causes a fork system call to fail if the new process would exceed the control value. See the fork(2) man page.

signal=

You can enable a global signal message action when the resource control is exceeded. A signal is sent to the process when the threshold value is exceeded. Additional signals are not sent if the process consumes additional resources. Available signals are listed in Table 6-3.

Not all of the actions can be applied to every resource control. For example, a process cannot exceed the number of CPU shares assigned to the project of which it is a member. Therefore, a deny action is not allowed on the project.cpu-shares resource control.

Due to implementation restrictions, the global properties of each control can restrict the range of available actions that can be set on the threshold value. (See the rctladm(1M) man page.) A list of available signal actions is presented in the following table. For additional information about signals, see the signal(3HEAD) man page.

Table 6-3 Signals Available to Resource Control Values

Signal

Description

Notes

SIGABRT

Terminate the process.

SIGHUP

Send a hangup signal. Occurs when carrier drops on an open line. Signal sent to the process group that controls the terminal.

SIGTERM

Terminate the process. Termination signal sent by software.

SIGKILL

Terminate the process and kill the program.

SIGSTOP

Stop the process. Job control signal.

SIGXRES

Resource control limit exceeded. Generated by resource control facility.

SIGXFSZ

Terminate the process. File size limit exceeded.

Available only to resource controls with the RCTL_GLOBAL_FILE_SIZE property (process.max-file-size). See rctlblk_set_value(3C) for more information.

SIGXCPU

Terminate the process. CPU time limit exceeded.

Available only to resource controls with the RCTL_GLOBAL_CPUTIME property (process.max-cpu-time). See rctlblk_set_value(3C) for more information.

Resource Control Flags and Properties

Each resource control on the system has a certain set of associated properties. This set of properties is defined as a set of flags, which are associated with all controlled instances of that resource. Global flags cannot be modified, but the flags can be retrieved by using either rctladm or the getrctl system call.

Local flags define the default behavior and configuration for a specific threshold value of that resource control on a specific process or process collective. The local flags for one threshold value do not affect the behavior of other defined threshold values for the same resource control. However, the global flags affect the behavior for every value associated with a particular control. Local flags can be modified, within the constraints supplied by their corresponding global flags, by the prctl command or the setrctl system call. See setrctl(2).

For the complete list of local flags, global flags, and their definitions, see rctlblk_set_value(3C).

To determine system behavior when a threshold value for a particular resource control is reached, use rctladm to display the global flags for the resource control . For example, to display the values for process.max-cpu-time, type the following:

$ rctladm process.max-cpu-time
    process.max-cpu-time  syslog=off  [ lowerable no-deny cpu-time inf seconds ]

The global flags indicate the following.

lowerable

Superuser privileges are not required to lower the privileged values for this control.

no-deny

Even when threshold values are exceeded, access to the resource is never denied.

cpu-time

SIGXCPU is available to be sent when threshold values of this resource are reached.

seconds

The time value for the resource control.

no-basic

Resource control values with the privilege type basic cannot be set. Only privileged resource control values are allowed.

no-signal

A local signal action cannot be set on resource control values.

no-syslog

The global syslog message action may not be set for this resource control.

deny

Always deny request for resource when threshold values are exceeded.

count

A count (integer) value for the resource control.

bytes

Unit of size for the resource control.

Use the prctl command to display local values and actions for the resource control.

$ prctl -n process.max-cpu-time $$
    process 353939: -ksh
    NAME    PRIVILEGE    VALUE    FLAG   ACTION              RECIPIENT
 process.max-cpu-time
         privileged   18.4Es    inf   signal=XCPU                 -
         system       18.4Es    inf   none 

The max (RCTL_LOCAL_MAXIMAL) flag is set for both threshold values, and the inf (RCTL_GLOBAL_INFINITE) flag is defined for this resource control. An inf value has an infinite quantity. The value is never enforced. Hence, as configured, both threshold quantities represent infinite values that are never exceeded.

Resource Control Enforcement

More than one resource control can exist on a resource. A resource control can exist at each containment level in the process model. If resource controls are active on the same resource at different container levels, the smallest container's control is enforced first. Thus, action is taken on process.max-cpu-time before task.max-cpu-time if both controls are encountered simultaneously.

Figure 6-1 Process Collectives, Container Relationships, and Their Resource Control Sets
Diagram shows enforcement of each resource control at its containment level.

Global Monitoring of Resource Control Events

Often, the resource consumption of processes is unknown. To get more information, try using the global resource control actions that are available with the rctladm command. Use rctladm to establish a syslog action on a resource control. Then, if any entity managed by that resource control encounters a threshold value, a system message is logged at the configured logging level. See Chapter 7, Administering Resource Controls (Tasks) and the rctladm(1M) man page for more information.

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