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7.5.4. How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of MySQL

Most of the following tests were performed on Linux with the MySQL benchmarks, but they should give some indication for other operating systems and workloads.

You obtain the fastest executables when you link with -static.

On Linux, it is best to compile the server with pgcc and -O3. You need about 200MB memory to compile with these options, because gcc or pgcc needs a great deal of memory to make all functions inline. You should also set CXX=gcc when configuring MySQL to avoid inclusion of the libstdc++ library, which is not needed. Note that with some versions of pgcc, the resulting binary runs only on true Pentium processors, even if you use the compiler option indicating that you want the resulting code to work on all x586-type processors (such as AMD).

By using a better compiler and compilation options, you can obtain a 10–30% speed increase in applications. This is particularly important if you compile the MySQL server yourself.

When we tested both the Cygnus CodeFusion and Fujitsu compilers, neither was sufficiently bug-free to allow MySQL to be compiled with optimizations enabled.

The standard MySQL binary distributions are compiled with support for all character sets. When you compile MySQL yourself, you should include support only for the character sets that you are going to use. This is controlled by the --with-charset option to configure.

Here is a list of some measurements that we have made:

  • If you use pgcc and compile everything with -O6, the mysqld server is 1% faster than with gcc 2.95.2.

  • If you link dynamically (without -static), the result is 13% slower on Linux. Note that you still can use a dynamically linked MySQL library for your client applications. It is the server that is most critical for performance.

  • For a connection from a client to a server running on the same host, if you connect using TCP/IP rather than a Unix socket file, performance is 7.5% slower. (On Unix, if you connect to the hostname localhost, MySQL uses a socket file by default.)

  • For TCP/IP connections from a client to a server, connecting to a remote server on another host is 8–11% slower than connecting to a server on the same host, even for connections over 100Mb/s Ethernet.

  • When running our benchmark tests using secure connections (all data encrypted with internal SSL support) performance was 55% slower than with unencrypted connections.

  • If you compile with --with-debug=full, most queries are 20% slower. Some queries may take substantially longer; for example, the MySQL benchmarks run 35% slower. If you use --with-debug (without =full), the speed decrease is only 15%. For a version of mysqld that has been compiled with --with-debug=full, you can disable memory checking at runtime by starting it with the --skip-safemalloc option. The execution speed should then be close to that obtained when configuring with --with-debug.

  • On a Sun UltraSPARC-IIe, a server compiled with Forte 5.0 is 4% faster than one compiled with gcc 3.2.

  • On a Sun UltraSPARC-IIe, a server compiled with Forte 5.0 is 4% faster in 32-bit mode than in 64-bit mode.

  • Compiling with gcc 2.95.2 for UltraSPARC with the -mcpu=v8 -Wa,-xarch=v8plusa options gives 4% more performance.

  • On Solaris 2.5.1, MIT-pthreads is 8–12% slower than Solaris native threads on a single processor. With greater loads or more CPUs, the difference should be larger.

  • Compiling on Linux-x86 using gcc without frame pointers (-fomit-frame-pointer or -fomit-frame-pointer -ffixed-ebp) makes mysqld 1–4% faster.

Binary MySQL distributions for Linux that are provided by MySQL AB used to be compiled with pgcc. We had to go back to regular gcc due to a bug in pgcc that would generate binaries that do not run on AMD. We will continue using gcc until that bug is resolved. In the meantime, if you have a non-AMD machine, you can build a faster binary by compiling with pgcc. The standard MySQL Linux binary is linked statically to make it faster and more portable.

  Published under the terms of the GNU General Public License Design by Interspire