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< Previous Section: Firewalls - Understanding Linux Services

4         Configuring Linux Services and Runlevels

Whilst the Firewall can be configured to block the ports used by the the various Linux services, if they are not required it is also good policy the disable any unused services on the Linux system. Not only does this provide an additional level of Linux security but it also avoids having unnecessary processes running and using up system resources. In this chapter we will explore the configuration of Linux services. 

Before talking more about Linux services it is first important to understand a little about Runlevels. A typical Linux system can be configured to boot up into one of five different runlevels. During the boot a process called init looks in the /etc/inittab file to find the default runlevel. Having identified the runlevel it proceeds to execute the appropriate startup scripts to run the services that are required for the system.

The good news is that both the runlevel and the services that get started are configurable. 

4.1      Linux Init and Runlevels

During the boot process for Redhat 9.0 and Fedora Core systems, for example, the init command opens the /etc/inittab file to decide what "runlevel" the system should be booted to. The /etc/inittab file is a plain text file that can be opened with your favorite text editor.

The relevant section of a sample /etc/inittab file is as follows:

# Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are:
#   0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#   1 - Single user mode
#   2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
#   3 - Full multiuser mode
#   4 - unused
#   5 - X11
#   6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
id:3:initdefault:


The key line in the example above is:

id:3:initdefault:

This tells the init process that the default run level for the system is run level 3. To change to a different run level simply change the number and save the /etc/inittab file. Before doing this, however, be absolutely sure you know which run level you want. Selecting the wrong runlevel can have serious consequences. To help with this a detailed description of the individual run levels is outlined in the table below:

Table 1: Linux Runlevel Descriptions

Runlevel

Runlevel Description

Runlevel 0

The halt runlevel - this is the runlevel at which the system shuts down. For obvious reasons it is unlikely you would want this as your default runlevel.

Runlevel 1

Single runlevel. This causes the system to start up in a single user mode under which only the root user can log in. In this mode the system does not start any networking or X windowing, X or multi-user services. This run level is ideal for system administrators to perform system maintenance or repair activities.

Runlevel 2

Boots the system into a multi-user mode with text based console login capability. This runlevel does not, however, start the network.

Runlevel 3

Similar to runlevel 2 except that networking services are started. This is the most common runlevel for server based systems that do not require any kind of graphical desktop environment.

Runlevel 4

Undefined runlevel. This runlevel can be configured to provide a custom boot state.

Runlevel 5

Boots the system into a networked, multi-user state with X Window System capability. By default the graphical desktop environment will start at the end of the boot process. This is the most common run level for desktop or workstation use.

Runlevel 6

Reboots the system. Another runlevel that you are unlikely to want as your default.

< Previous Section: Firewalls - Understanding Linux Services

 
 
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